Research

Introduction

The Unani system of medicine is well established in India rather than any other country in the world. India is taken as the best example for research in Unani medicine. Hakim Ajmal Khan the famous Unani physician pioneered the concept of research in the Unani system of medicine. In India during the period of 1920 Hakim Ajmal khan with his expertise and foresightedness initiated chemical studies on Rauwolfia Serpentina with the help of a famous chemist Dr. Salimuzzaman Siddiqui [1].

Dr. Salimuzzaman Siddiqui’s and Hakim Ajmal khan’s hard work led to finding out the efficacy of Rauwolfia Serpentina, its uses in neurovascular and nervous disorders, such as hypertension, insanity, insomnia and psychosomatic conditions [2].

The Unani system of medicine being chiefly confined to India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, the publications are nevertheless limited. There are only few Unani medicine journals that are published regularly.

Fundamental Research

The Central council of research in Unani medicine (CCRUM) is the main iconic Unani institution for research in Unani medicine in India.  The CCRUM took up number of research projects to scientifically evaluate and interpret the rationale and relevance of Unani medicine theories and philosophies.  The fundamental research covers the following

  1. Unani Medicine through history
  2. Basic principles, concepts and philosophies of Unani Medicine
  3. Classical literature in Unani Medicine
  4. Prevention of disease and promotion of health in Unani Medicine [3][4] 

Applied Research

Research in Unani system of medicine is of different types. The applied research in Unani medicine is initiated by the CCRUM to achieve the goal of treating and curing specific diseases. The applied research includes the following:

  1. Drug standardization research
  2. Literary Research
  3. Clinical research
  4. Survey, cultivation, pharmacognosy and pharmacology of medicinal plants [5]

Drug Standardization Research

The drug standardization programme is designed to evaluate and validate safety and efficacy of single and compound Unani drugs.

The main objectives of this programme are:

  1. Design and development of National Formulary for Unani medicines.
  2. Standardization of single Unani drugs.
  3. Standardization of compound Unani drugs formulations.
  4. Development of Standard operating Procedure (SOPs) for compound formulations.
  5. Chemical analysis and standardization of mineral origin Unani drugs.
  6. Standardization of animal origin Unani drugs.
  7. GMP and standardization of method of manufacture of finished products [4] 

The CCRUM has until now developed standards for 277 single Unani drugs and 385 compound Unani drugs. The CCRUM based on the developed standards has published following [6]:

 
No. Title of publication Details of production
1 Standardization of Single Drugs of Unani Medicine.

It is a five volume monograph. Each volume contains standardizations of 50 single Unani drugs.

2 Physicochemical Standards of Unani Formulations.

It is a four volume monograph. The first three are having standards of 100 compound Unani drugs and the last fourth ia having standards for 50 compound Unani drugs.

3 Chemistry of Unani Medicinal Plants This book is based on isolation and identification of active principal ingredients from 50 medicinal plants used in Unani system of medicine.
4 Unani Pharmacopoeia of India Part-1 It has six volumes each having standards for 45, 50, 53, 50, 52 and 50 single Unani drugs respectively.
5 Unani Pharmacopoeia of India Part-2 It has five volumes each having 441, 202, 103, 166 and 179 compound Unani drugs.

 

Literary Research

This programme of the CCRUM is one the important research programmes which includes evaluation, authenticity, editing, compilation and translation of rare manuscripts of Unani system of medicine [4].  

 The main objectives of the literary research programme are [4]:

  1. Collection, authentication, editing and translation of important classical Unani manuscripts/ books.
  2. Compilation of books and handouts on Unani Medicine.
  3. Production of CDs of Unani Classical books.
  4. Prevention and reprinting of rare classical Unani manuscripts.
  5. Database development on Unani medicine.
  6. Production of training and education Information for Unani medicine in English, Hindi, Urdu and different regional Indian languages.

The literary research programme of the Council includes editing, compilation and translation of rare manuscripts of Unani system of medicine. This programme is being carried out through a Literary Research Institute of Unani Medicine in New Delhi.  

The literary research programme of CCRUM has published following rare manuscripts:

No. Title Description Details of publications
1

Kitab al-Kulliyat

The book of general medical principles.

It is a book originally written by Ibn Rushd (Averroes) in Arabic on general medical principles. It has been translated into Urdu.

Author: Ibn Rushd
Year of publication: 1980 (urdu translation)
PublisherCCRUM, 5 Panchsheel Marg New Delhi 110 017. India,
Printer: Ali Corporation Delhi India.

2

Kitab al-Abdal

The book of Change.

This book is authored by Zakaria Razi (Rhazes) in Arabic language. The council has translated to Urdu language with explanatory notes.

Author: Zakaria Razi
Year of publication: 1999 (urdu translation).
Publisher: CCRUM, 61-65 iInstitutional Area Opp D- Block Janakpuri 110058 India. Printer: Gulco
Printer: Press private limited Delhi India.

3

Kitab al-Jamii-al-Mufradat Vol. I to IV

The book of single drugs.

This book is written by Ibn Baitar in Persian language. This book is on single Unani drugs. CCRUM has translated this book to Urdu language.

Author: Ibn Baitar
Year of publication: 1999 (Urdu translation). Publisher: CCRUM, 61-65 iInstitutional Area Opp D- Block Janakpuri 110058 India. Printer: Kaas Enterprise Delhi 110006 India.

 

The department of Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy commonly referred as ‘AYUSH’ provides financial assistance to the CCRUM for literary research in publishing classical Unani books. Under this scheme of AYUSH for literary research publications following classical Unani books were published and reprinted [7]:

No. Title Description Details of publication
1 Qarabadin-e-Jadeed New Unani medicine formulary. It is published in Urdu.

Author: Hakeem Abdul Hafeez
1st publication: 1931
Reprint publication: CCRUM (2005)

2 Qarabadin-Azam-o-Akmal -1 Azam and Kamal Unani medicine Formulary-1. It is published in Urdu.

Author: Hakeem Azam Khan and Kamal
1st publication: Matba Nizami Kanpur (1893)
Reprint publication: CCRUM New Delhi (2006)

3 Qarabadin-Azam-o-Akmal -2 Azam and Kamal Unani medicine Formulary-2. It is published in Urdu.

Author: Hakeem Azam Khan and Kamal
1st publication: Matba Nizami Kanpur (1893)
Reprint publication: CCRUM New Delhi, (2006)

4 Qarabadin-e-Azam The big Unani medicine Formulary. It is published in Persian.

Publication: CCRUM New Delhi India (August 1981)

5 Qarabadin-e-Sarkari The government Unani medicine formulary. It is published in English and Urdu.

Publication: CCRUM New Delhi India (1999).

6 Qarabadin-e-Jalalee The Unani formulary of Jaleeli. It is published in Persian.

Author: Hakeem Jalaluddin Amrohwi
1st publication: Naval kishore luknow (1897)
Reprint publication: CCRUM,New Delhi (2006)

 7 Qarabadin-e-Ahsani The Unani formulary of Ahsani. It is published in Urdu.

Author :Hakeem Ahsaan Ali
Publication: Matba Nizami Kanpur (1288 Hijiri)
Reprint publication: CCRUM, New Delhi (2006)

8 Al-Qarabadin The Unani Formulary. It is published in Urdu.

Publication: CCRUM New Delhi India (September 2003)

9 Qanoon-e-Shaikh The Conan of medicine. It is published in Urdu.

Author: Syed Ghulam Husain.
Publication: Matba Naval Kishore Lucknow India (1885)

10 Ramooz-e-Azam–I Part-1. It is a book on principles of Unani medicine. It is published in Persian.

Author: Hakeem Azam Khan
Publication: Matba Siddiqui Delhi (1320 Hijiri)
Reprint publication: CCRUM New Delhi (2006)

11 Ramooz-e-Azam–II Part-2. It is a book on principles of Unani medicine. It is published in Persian.

Author: Hakeem Azam Khan
Publication: Matba Siddiqui Delhi (2006)
Reprint publication: CCRUM New Delhi (2006).

12 Kamil-al-Sana–I Part-1. It is a book on fundamentals of Unani medicine. It is published in Arabic.

Author: Abul Hasan Ali Ibne Abbas Majoosi (1889)
Publication: Munshi Naval Kishore Lucknow (Urdu translation by Ghulam Hasnain Kastoori)

13 Kamil-al-Sana–II Part-2. It is a book on fundamentals of Unani medicine. It is published in Arabic.

Author: Ali Ibn Abbas majoosi (1889)
Publication: Matba Naval Kishore Luknow (Urdu translation by Ghulam Hasnain Kantoori).

14 Al Mualijat Al Buqratia. This book is on the concepts of treatment in Unani medicine compiled by Hippocrates. It is published. Originally in Greek translated by Abu Hassan Ahmad bin Muhamad Tabri and then translated to Urdu.

Publication: CCRUM New delhi (1995, Urdu translation by Mohamad Khalid Siddqui.
Publisher:Printed: at Nice printing press. New Delhi India

15 Tazkira-e-Jaleel Biography of Hakeem Jaleel. It is published in Urdu.

Author: Hakeem Hafiz Jaleel Ahmad
1st publication: (1955)
Reprint publication:CCRUM New Delhi (2008)

16 Tazkira-tul-Kohaleen Biography of Kohaleen. It is published in Arabic.

Author: Isa bin Kuhhal
Publication:1994 (1994,from Daeratul muarif usmaniya Hyderabad)
Reprint publication: : CCRUM, New Delhi (2008)

17 Bayaz-e-Kbeer-II(Urdu) Part-2. Compendium of Unani medicine. It is published in Urdu.

Author :Hakeem Mohammed Kabeer Uddin
Publication: Hitmat depot Hyderabad Deccan India (29 January 1921)

18 Ghina-Muna -1 Part-1. This book is on Unani medicine treatments. It is published in Arabic

Author: Abu Mansur Hasan ibn Nuh Qumr
1st publication: 990/380 H.
Publication: (1978, Arabic translation by The Institute for the History of Arabic Science Syria) (Arabic)

19 Ghina Muna -2 Part-2.This book is on Unani medicine treatments. It is published in Urdu.

Rereprint publication: CCRUM, New Delhi (2003).

20 Madanul Akseer This book is on usage of minerals in Unani medicine. It is published in Urdu.

Author: Hakeem Muhammad Firozuddin
Publication: (1905)
Reprint publication: CCRUM,New Delhi (2007)

21 Makhzan-e-Mufradat Wa Muraqabat Single and compound drugs of Unani medicine. It is published in Urdu.

Author: Hakim Kabir uddin
Publication: Eijaz Publishing house Darya Gunj Delhi India (1983).

22 Kitab-al-Aghzia This is a book on Nutrition. It is published in Arabic.

Author: Ziya Uddin Abdullah Ibn Al- Baytar
Publication: (1248 AD.)
Reprint publication: CCRUM, New Delhi (1974)

23 Kitab-al-Aghzia This is a book on Nutrition. It is published in Urdu.

Author: Ziya Uddin Abdullah Ibn Al- Baytar
1st publication: (1248 AD)
Reprint publication: CCRUM,New Delhi (1974)

24 Kitab Al Mansoori This is a book on principle of cilinical practices in Unani medicine.  It is published in Arabic.

Author: Abu Bakar Bin Muhamad Zakaria Razi
1st publication: 925 AD
Publication: CCRUM New Delhi (February 1991, Urdu translation). Printed at: Seema offset press Delhi India

25 Qarabadin-e-Qadri Qadri’s Unani medicine formulary. It is published in Urdu.

Author: Hakeem Akbar Arzani (1718)
Publication: CCRUM New Delhi (2006, Urdu translation by Hakeem Noor Muhammad Kareem in beginning of 20th century)

26 Qarabadin–e– Majeedi. This is a book on compound Unani medicines formulary.

Publication: Hamdard Dawakhana Wakf laboratories (1951).
Printed at: Ajanta Offset and Packagings Limited New Delhi India.

27 Umur-e-Tabaiyah Principles of Unani medicine. It is published in Urdu and English.

Author: Hakeem Muhammad Jamaluddin
Publication: (1920)
Reprint publication: CCRUM, New Delhi (1984)

28  Kitab-Al- Hawi This book is on diseases, causes of disease and treatment of diseases in Unani system of medicine.

Author: Abu Bakar Bin Muhamad Zakaria Razi (925 AD)
Publication: CCRUM New Delhi (2000)
Printed at: Ali Corporation New Delhi India

Clinical Research

The clinical research programme of CCRUM is aimed at providing cost effective remedies for acute as well as chronic diseases. The clinical research project of the CCRUM is mainly focused on the classical texts of Unani system of medicine which includes following areas:

  1. Critical appraisal of the theory of pathogenesis in Unani System of medicine.
  2. Symptomatology in Unani System of medicine.
  3. Clinical methods of diagnosis and prognosis in Unani System of medicine.
  4. Principles and methods of treatment in Unani System of medicine [8]

 The clinical research programme at CCRUM includes the following:

  1. Clinical studies on different diseases.
  2. Therapeutic trials of single and compound Unani drugs in different diseases.
  3. Pathogenesis of different diseases.
  4. Epidemiological diseases.
  5. Scientific validation and development of Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs) for regimental therapies of Unani Medicine.
  6. Clinico-pharmacological studies on Unani single & Compound formulations.
  7. Collaborative studies in different diseases with modern hospitals/scientific organization.
  8. Scientific validation of fundamentals of Unani Medicine [9]

List of Diseases on which Clinical Studies have been Undertaken 

  • Bars (Vitiligo)
  • Nar e Farsi (Eczema)
  • Waja-Ul-Mafasil (Rheumatoid Arthritis)
  • Iltehab-E-Kabid (Infective Hepatitis)
  • Zeequn Nafas (Bronchial Asthma)
  • Ishal-E-Atfal (Infantile Diarrhoea)
  • Daus Sadaf (Psoriasis)
  • Daul Feel (Filariasis)
  • Kasrat-E-Shahamuddam (Hyperlipidemia)
  • Iltehab-E-Tajaweef-E-Anf (Sinusitis)[4]

Note: All the above Clinical studies are lacking scientific validation, as there are no proper study designs, research methodology and study outcomes as per international standards of research. Hence the following research work in Unani medicine is compiled which is published in scientific journals.

Research in Unani Medicine

The designs and methods which are considered for Unani medicine research may be different from the methods and designs used in research of conventional medicine, which may or may not include randomised controlled trials (RCTs).

The researchers in Unani medicine face a lot of challenges in designing a proper study or a research protocol, because Unani medicine treatment is very subjective,  individualized and personalised.

Available Research in Unani Medicine in Scientific journals 

Following is a brief description of some Unani medicine research that has been done using the basic principles of Unani treatment. The research is classified as per the disease or the pathological conditions. There have been a lot of clinical studies using Unani medicine conducted by either individual Unani practitioners or renowned Unani Institutions. The following are the brief description of such studies highlighting the methods and findings with some comments on results and conclusions. 

1. Arthritis / Animal study

Title: Anti-arthritic activity of Majoon suranjan (a polyherbal Unani formulation) in rat [10].

This study was done at Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi, India, by Surender Singh et al. In this study a poly herbal Unani formulation Majoon suranjan was tested for its anti-inflammatory and anti-arthriatic activity. This study was conducted using three different experimental models namely 1. Turpentine oil induced paw edema. 2. Formaldehyde induced arthritis and 3. Adjuvant induced arthritis. The Unani medicine preparation was outsourced from the Majeedia Hospital pharmacy of the Hamdard University in Delhi India. Male Wistar rats were used in this study. The parameters tested were evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of Majoon suranjan in the turpentine oil induced paw oedema model and anti-arthritic activity of Majoon suranjan was evaluated in formaldehyde induced arthritis and adjuvant induced arthritis models. Drug Aspirin was used as a standard in all the models. The study concluded that Majoon suranjan produced a considerable positive effect in all the three experimental models which was superior when compared to Aspirin standards.

2. Skin/Clinical human study

Title : Clinical evaluation of efficacy of Majoon Ushba (polyherbal Unani formulation) and Roghane Hindi polyherbal Unani oil) in the management of psoriasis: A randomized single-blind, placebo-controlled study [11].

This study was conducted by Azad Hussain Lone et al, at the Department of Moalajat, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore India. This randomized single-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two Unani medicine formulations Majoon Ushba (polyherbal Unani formulation) and Roghane Hindi (polyherbal Unani oil) for the management of psoriasis. 30 psoriasis diagnosed patients were recruited for this study. The research subjects were divided into two groups, the experimental group with 20 subjects was given Majoon Ushba 5 gm twice daily and Roghane Hindi was applied twice daily and control group with 10 subjects was given placebo drugs for local application and oral intake. After 8 weeks of the study the results of the both groups were analyzed and compared upon the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) Scale. The results of the study showed that there was a significant reduction of PASI score in the experimental group with no observed side effects. The study concluded that Majoon Ushba and Roghane Hindi are effective and safe for the management of psoriasis.

Title: Clinical Study on the Management of Huzaz/Abria (Dandruff) with a pharmacopoeia Preparation of a Unani Medicine and its Cosmetic Evaluation [12]

This clinical study was conducted at Dept. of Moalajat, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore, Karnataka 560091 India by Altaf Hussain Shah et al. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Unani medicine formulations for the treatment of mild form of seborrhic dermatitis of scalp commonly referred as dandruff. The Unani medicine formulation was compared with 2% ketaconazole shampoo. 50 patients were recruited in this study after the ethical clearance and informed consent. 30 patients were subjected to Unani medicine treatment whereas 20 patients were treated with 2% ketaconazole shampoo. The parameters like Itching, Scalp shedding, Erythema, Hair frizz, Hair combing ease, and Hair smoothness were assessed before and after 30 days. Statistical analysis was performed after 30 days. The study results showed that Unani formulation was as good as the 2% ketaconazole shampoo and the hair outlook was better than the standard drug.

3. Vascular / Human study

Title: Effect of Taleeq (Leech Therapy) in Dawali (Varicose Veins) [13]

This study was done by Zar Nigaret al, at the National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore, India. A randomized controlled clinical open trial was conducted recruiting 50 patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups, 30 in test and 20 in control group. This study was designed to evaluate the cost effectiveness and efficacy of Leech therapy in varicose veins. The test group was subjected to leech therapy every alternate day whereas the control group was given compression stockings & limb elevation for two months. The parameters which were assessed in both the groups on every 15th day included assessment of pain / leg discomfort, limb girth at calf, ankle, and feet, pigmentation area & colour on every 15th day. The test group was subjected to hemoglobin count every 15th day. Test group showed a significant reduction in all parameters whereas the control group also showed significant reduction in all parameters except pigmentation. The outcome of the study shows that a combination of leech therapy with compression stockings will be beneficial and cost-effective.

4. Neurological /study 

Title: Neuroprotection Offered by Majun Khadar, a Traditional Unani Medicine, during Cerebral Ischemic Damage in Rats [14].

This study was done at Neurotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), New Delhi, India and Brain Research Laboratory, Department of Emergency Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia , USA which was funded by the Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM), Govt of India, New Delhi. The study was performed by Seema Yousuf et al of Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), New Delhi India. This study evaluates the protective efficacy of a Unani herbal medicine, Majun Khadar, against cerebral ischemia-induced behavioral dysfunctions and neurochemical alterations in the hippocampus. Male Wistar rats were used in this study as test subjects. The supplementation of Majun Khadar showed an increase in neurobehavioral outcomes and neuronal defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia. The study concluded that Majun Khadar helps in protecting cerebral ischemia by increasing the antioxidants activity which in turn boosts the mechanism of repair of the lesions at the ischemic site. The outcome of this study states that Majun Khadar exhibits neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia.

5. Gastric/ Animal study 

Title: Healing property of Jawarish Tabasheer, Unani poly herbal formulation in Induced Gastric Ulceration in Rat Models [15]

This study was conducted at the Department of Ilmul Advia National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore India, by Abdul Wadud et al. Wistar rats of both the sexes were used in this study. The animals were divided into 4 groups of 6 each. The parameters tested for the healig property of Jawarish Tabasheer were evaluated by the induction of ulcers in rats by the Shey et al method (A simple method for the uniform production of gastric ulceration in the rat) and the method of Adami et al was used in assessing the degree of ulceration. Drug Ranitidine was used as a standard in this study. This study showed that the test drug produced significant results in reducing the gastric contents, free and total acidity and considerable increase in pH. The study concluded that at a lower dose of Jawarish Tabasheer there was no significant decrease in ulcer index but when the dose of the test drug was doubled, the response to decrease in ulcer index was much better. The study further concluded that the antiulcer effect of the test drug was because of healing of the gastric lesion either through nervous system or by producing local effect of neutralization and cytoprotection. Most of the components in Jawarish Tabasheer has certain essential fatty acids which are well known precursors of prostaglandin which have cytoprotective effect. The outcome of the study shows that the anti-ulcer effect of test drug may be due to reduction in stress and thereby reduction in gastric secretion, cytoprotection, minimization or neutralization of acid secretion, ulcer protection, and antibacterial action.

6. Pulmonary / human study 

Title: Evaluation of efficacy of barley water in pulmonary tuberculosis [16].

This study was done by Mohd. Zulkifl e et al at the department of Tahaffuzi wa Samaji Tib (Preventive and Social Medicine), National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM), , Bangalore-,  India .This study was a randomized control trial. 50 patients were recruited in this study which was divided into two groups, 30 under test group and 20 under control group. The 30 patients in test group were given 200 ml of Barley water in addition to DOTS (Directly Observed treatment schedule), whereas 20 patients in control group were given only DOTS as per schedule.  The parameters which were implemented in the test and control group were subjective and objective parameters. The subjective parameter was loss of appetite and the objective parameter was assessment of body weight. After 6 months of the treatment the values of both the parameters were assessed based on statistical analysis with pre and post treatment values. The safety and efficacy of barley water was assessed by the clinical assessment at a weekly interval. No adverse effect or reaction was reported by any patient during the study. The patients in both the groups were assessed at 1 month, 2nd month, 3rd month, 4th month 5th month and 6th month. The study concluded that barley water is found to be effective in treating pulmonary TB as an adjuvant to DOTS. It improved physical functions of the  patients and  was found to be helpful in reducing the adverse effects of DOTS such as  giddiness, nausea, vomiting and gastritis.

7. Pulmonary / human study 

Title: Unani Formulation Enhances Available Free Lung Space for Air Transaction in Chronic Bronchitis – A Clinical Trial [17].

This Clinical trial was performed by Altaf Hussain Shah et al at the Department of Moalejat, (medicine) of National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore India.  This study was a single blind, randomized and standard controlled study which involved two groups of patients  with 20 patients in each group. A Unani pharmacopeia compound formulation was used as test drug in this study which included Aslussoos (Glycyrrhiza glabra ) 10.5gm, Parsiyaoshan (Adiantum capillus veresis) 3.5gm, Zufa yabis (Hyssopus offi cinalis) 3.5gm and Sapistan (Cordiadichotoma) taken from the renowned Unani pharmacopeia ‘ Quarabadine Azam’. a mucloyticl  agent Ambroxol was used as a standard drug in the control group. The parameter involved in evaluation of the efficacy of the Unani formulation in the test and control groups was based on spirometry measurements of the patients suffering from Chronic Bronchitis (Warme Shoab Muzmin). After 45 days of treatment the pre and post treatment data was analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of the test drug. The observations revealed that the Unani formulation was very effective in the enhancement of available residual volume in Chronic Bronchitis (Warme Shoab Muzmin) patients. This study proves that the Unani formulation was a better deobstruent in comparison to Ambroxol as measured by FEV1 / FVC and PEF. The outcome of the study shows that the Unani formulation had a as per the results procured that the test drug has a positive effect in obstructive lung diseases. The diagnosis has been done by both modern and Unani medicine practitioners. 

Survey, Cultivation, Pharmacognosy and Pharmacology of Medicinal Plants

The CCRUM with the help of National Medicinal Plants Board, Government of India and Ministry of forest and agriculture has designed research programmes in ethanobotanical exploration of Indian forests, collection of folk medicines, preservation of endangered medicinal plants and cultivation of medicinal plants with high demand [18].

The objectives of this research programme are:

  1. Ethnobotanical  suvey and exploration of  Indian forest areas.
  2. Development of database on Unani Medicinal plants in different regions of India.
  3. Development of databases on Tribal medicine and Folk medicine undertaking trials  on these medicines on scientific lines.
  4. Development of experimental farms for cultivation of endangered and rare important Unani medicinal plants.
  5. Importing and domesticating of Unani medicinal plants.
  6. Large scale cultivation of Unani medicinal plants which are used by CCRUM for preparation of research drugs.
  7. Development of GAP for Unani medicinal plants and technology transfer to the local farmers for commercial scale cultivation.
  8. Development of Unani medicinal plants nurseries and herb gardens.

Unani System of Medicine Journals 

As Unani system of medicine is gaining popularity because of its efficacy, but the Unani medicine journals are very few chiefly from India only. Unani system of medicine is gaining lots of attention from the Western and Asian countries as well.

 

No. Name of journal Details of journal Address Website
1 Unani Research  [19] Unani Research is a peer reviewed journal. This peer-reviewed scientific journal is published in English. This journal mainly focuses on publishing theoretical and empirical papers that reports of the research findings in Unani medicine. The main aim and scope of this journal are to publish important research based on evidence with a strong view on efficacy and safety of Unani medicines.

Editor-in-Chief
Dr. Ahmad Husain
Unani Research
H.A.H. Unani Medical College & Hospital
3, Idgah Road, Dewas,
Madhya Pradesh 455001 INDIA

Phone:

Mobile: +919981777699
Land line: +917272220788

Email: ahmad.husain@unanires.org, editor@unanires.org

 www.unanires.org
2 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK)  [20]

It is a quarterly journal published by the “National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources” (NISCAIR), Central government of India.

The Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge publishes original research papers and review articles, related to clinical and experimental investigation of the bioactive substances form the plants, animals and minerals, used in the traditional health-care systems like Ayurveda, Siddha, Yoga, Unani, Naturopathy, and Homoeopathy.

Editor: Dr K P Singh
National Institute of Science Communication
and Information Resources
Email: (kps@niscair.res.in)

Dr K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110 012, India

Fax: 011-25847062

Phone: +91 2584 3833,
2584 6301, 6304-07

E-mail: ijtk@niscair.res.in

www.niscair.res.in
 3 Hippocratic Journal of Unani Medicine  [21] This is peer reviewed Unani medicine journal which is published by Central council for research in Unani medicine. (CCRUM). It is a quarterly publication. This journal features current developments in Unani medicine research and research in Unani Regimental therapies like cupping, leeching and massage.

 

Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine CCRUM Delhi
Address61-65, Institutional Area
Opp. D-Block, Janakpuri
New Delhi 110 058 India.

Telephone: +91-11-28522965

Email: shakirjamil@ccrum.net,
 mehrealamkhan@ccrum.net,
 dg@ccrum.net publication@ccrum.net

www.ccrum.net

http://www.ccrum.net/

International Journal of Unani Medicine  [22] This is a biannual, bilingual (English & Urdu) peer reviewed journal. It is published from the famous Aligarh Muslim University press under the auspices of Department of Anatomy and Physiology faculty of Unani medicine. The main aim of this journal is to bridge original contributions on subjects relevant to Unani Medicine and its practice

Editor in Chief: Prof. Iqtidarul Hasan Zaidi.
Department of Anatomy and Physiology
faculty of Unani medicine. Aligarh Muslim University.
Aligarh-202002 (UP) INDIA

Phone: +91-571-2703038, 2701807

Fax: +91-571-2702331,

Email: journalofunanimedicin@rediffmail.com

http://ammaramu.zoomshare.com

The Indian Journal of Unani Medicine and Medical Research (IJUMMR)  [23] The Indian Journal of Unani Medicine and Medical Research (IJUMMR) is an academic open access, peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary, refereed journal. This journal deals with all aspects of Unani medicine research.  It is an International platform for researchers, doctors, scientists and academicians from the Unani system of medicine.

Email:
saurabh1468@gmail.com,
izhunaz@gmail.com,
drizharnium@gmail.com

http://editorialscity.com/news-and-society/journalism/the-indian-journal-of-unani-medicine-medical-research-ijummr-3/

Research Organizations and Institutes

The Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine

The Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM) was established in 1978 and it started functioning from 10th January 1979 in New Delhi Central India. CRUM is an autonomous organisation under Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, central Government of India. The main function of CCRUM is to pioneer, aid, conduct, develop and coordinate scientific research in Unani system of medicine [24].

CCRUM during the last 32 years of its formation has made significant studies and researches giving evidence based platform to the Unani system of medicine. CCRUM is well established all over India with its regional research centres and research units.

Below is a State wise list of research centres under the management of the CCRUM [25]:

 CCRUM  Research Centers :

No. Name of the CCRUM research centre Address Activities
1 Central research institute of Unani medicine Hyderabad (CRIUM Hyderabad)

Opposite E.S.I. Hospital, A.G.
Colony Road Erragadda
Hyderabad – 500 838.
Andhra Pradesh India.

  1. Clinical Research Programme
  2. Research on Fundamentals of Unani Medicine
  3. General OPD Programme
  4. Mobile Clinical Research Programme
  5. School Health Programme
  6. Drug Standardization Programme
  7. Survey and Cultivation of Medicinal Plants Programme
2 Regional Research Centre (RRC)

Civil Hospital Silchar Assam Karimganj
– 788 710 Assam India

  1. Clinical validation of efficacy of kit medicines
  2. General OPD Programme
3 Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine

Guzri Patna – 800 001
Bihar India

  1. Clinical Research Programme
  2. General OPD Programme
  3. Mobile Clinical Research Programme
  4. School Health Programme
4 Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine

D-11/1, Abul Fazal Enclave Okhla,
Jamia Nagar New Delhi – 110 025

  1. Clinical Research Programme
  2. Validation of Regimental Therapies
  3. General OPD Programme
  4. Mobile Clinical Research Programme
  5. School Health Programme
5 Literary Research Institute Of Unani Medicine

IHMMR, Jamia Hamdard Hamdard Nagar
New Delhi – 110 062 India.

  1. Literary Research Programme
6 Drug Standardization Research Unit

IHMMR, Delhi – 110 062 India.

  1. Drug Standardisation Programme
7 Unani Medical Centre

OPD. Building Room No.304,
3rd Floor,
Dr. Ram Mahohar Lohia Hospital
Hospital New Delhi – 110 001 India.

  1. General OPD Programme
8 Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine

University of Kashmir Hazrat Bal
Srinagar – 190 006.
Jammu Kashmir India.

  1. Clinical Research Programme
  2. Pharmacological Research Programme
  3. General OPD Programme
  4. Mobile Clinical Research Programme
  5. Drug Standardisation Programme
  6. Survey and Cultivation of Medicinal Plants Programme
9 Clinical Research Unit (Unani)

National Institute of Unani Medicine
Kottigepalaya Road
Bangalore – 560 091 Karnataka India.

  1. Clinical Research Programme
  2. General OPD Programme
10 Clinical Research Unit (Unani)

Kurupatil Nina Memorial Near Panchayat Office,
Edathala (N) Post Office Aluva,
Eranakulam District, Kerala-683 564

  1. General OPD Programme
11 Clinical Research Unit (Unani)

Department of Pharmacology
Gandhi Medical College
Bhopal – 462 001 Madhy Pradesh India.

  1. Clinical Research Programme
 12

Clinical Research Unit (Unani)

S.H. Unani Tibbiya College
Ganpati Naka Burhanpur – 450 331 India.

  1. Clinical Research Programme
  2. General OPD Programme
  3. Mobile Clinical Research Programme
13

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine

J.J. Hospital Compound
Behind Eye Bank Byculla
Mumbai – 400 008 Maharashtra India.

  1. Clinical Research Programme
  2. General OPD Programme
  3. Mobile Clinical Research Programme
  4. School Health Programme
14 

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine

Bhadrak – 756 100 India.
  1. Clinical Research Programme
  2. General OPD Programme
  3. Mobile Clinical Research Programme
  4. School Health Programme
15 

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine

1, West Mada Church Street Royapuram
Chennai – 600 013 India

 

  1. Clinical Research Programme
  2. General OPD Programme
  3. Mobile Clinical Research Programme
  4. School Health Programme
  5. Drug Standardisation Programme
  6. Survey and Cultivation of Medicinal Plants Programme
16

Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine

 

C-39, Maakaila Bhavan, Sec.-C,
Sitapur Road Yojana,
Lala Lajpat Rai Ward
Lucknow – 226 021 Uttar Pradesh India.

  1. Clinical Research Programme
  2. General OPD Programme
  3. Mobile Clinical Research Programme
  4. School Health Programme
  5. Literary Research Programme
17

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine

 

 

 

Post Box. No. 70 A.K.
Tibbiya College Hospital (New Block)
Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh – 202 001 India

 

  1. Clinical Research Programme
  2. Pharmacological Research Programme
  3. General OPD Programme
  4. Mobile Clinical Research Programme
  5. School Health Programme
  6. Drug Standardisation Programme
  7. Survey and Cultivation of Medicinal Plants Programme
18

Drug Standardisation Research Institute (DSRI)

Building No.1, PLIM,
Kamla Nehru Nagar,
Ghaziabad – 201002 Uttar Pradesh India.

  1. Drug Standardisation Programme
19

Regional Research Centre (RRC)

B-3, Kareli Scheme,
Pahalwan Chauraha,
Nurullah Road,
Allahabad – 211 016

  1.  Clinical Research Programme
  2. General OPD Programme
  3. Mobile Clinical Research Programme
  4. School Health Programme
20 Clinical Research Unit (Unani) 368, Kothi Attanas Meerut – 250 002  Uttar Pradesh India
  1. Clinical validation of efficacy of kit medicines
  2. General OPD Programme
21 

Chemical Research Unit (Unani)

 

Department of Research in Unani Medicine
Near Office of Dean Faculty of Science
Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh – 202 001 India.

  1. Chemical Standardization of Single Drugs of Unani medicines.
22 

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine

79-B (First Floor) Chitranjan Avenue
Kolkata – 700 073 West Bengal. India

  1. Clinical Research Programme
  2. General OPD Programme

 

Famous Researchers in Unani System of Medicine

No. Name of the researcher Reserach topic
1 Hakim Ajmal Khan 1864-1927

Effect of reserpine on hypertension [26].
Publication : S.Siddiqui abd Rafat Hussain Siddiqui. Chemical Examination of the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina, Benth, Journal of Indian Chemical Society, Vol 8, 1931.

2 Hakim Kabeeruddin April 1894-9th January 1976 

He was famous for literary research. He published a compendium of Unani medicine.
Publication: Bayaz e Kabeer (Compendium of Kabeer). First edition 1921 Hikmat Book Depot Hyderabad Deccan India [27].

3 Professor  Rashid Bhikha

Prof.Rashid Bhikha, is a qualified pharmacist from Cape town South Africa. He is also trained in Unani medicine from Hamdard University in Pakistan. In 1997 he obtained a certificate in Unani Medicine for Health Professionals.

Publication: Rashid A H Bhikha and John P Glynn. Tibb as Part of Integrative Medical Care. Arab Health Issue Magazine 02nd February 2012 [28][29].

References

  1. Khan A.S. Our Own Eisntein: Dr Salimuzzaman Siddiqui. Weekly Technology Times; Pakistan. October 19, 2011. [Online]. Available from: http://technologytimes.pk/[Accessed 29 April 2012].
  2. CCRUM. Origin of Research. [Online]. 2011. Available from: http://www.ccrum.net/research/origin-of-research/[Accessed 29 April 2012].
  3. An overview of the department of AYUSH. [Online]. Available from: http://indianmedicine.nic.in/writereaddata/linkimages/9194821971-iitem%20no%201.pdf  [Accessed 2June 2011].
  4. Central council of research in Unani medicine . [Online]. Available from: http://www.tkdl.res.in/tkdl/langdefault/Unani/Una_ccrum.asp?GL=Eng  [Accessed 21st May 2012
  5. Central council of research in Unani medicine . [Online]. Available from: http://www.ccrum.net/research/research-programmes/ [Accessed 2June 2011].
  6. Press information Bureau of India [Online]. Available from: http://www.pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=55908 [Accessed 21st May 2012].
  7. AYUSH, Ministry of Health& Family Welfare, Govt of India. Homepage, Research Activities, Publications. [Online]. Available from: http://www.crism.net/ [Accessed 2June 2011].
  8. Central council of research in Unani Medicine. [Online]. Available from:   http://www.ccrum.net/research/research-programmes/clinical-research/ [Accessed 18th June 2012]
  9. Ministry of Health and Social Welfare Central Government of India. Increasing the Availability of Raw Materials [Online]. Available from: http://mohfw.nic.in/ [Accessed 21 May 2012].
  10. Surender Singh, Vinod Nair, and Y.K. Gupta . Antiarthritic activity of Majoon Suranjan (a polyherbal Unani formulation) in rat Indian J Med Res. 2011 September; 134(3): 384–388.  [Online]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ [Accessed 25th June 2012].
  11. Azad Hussain Lone, Tanzeel Ahmad, and A. H. Naiyar. Clinical evaluation of efficacy of Majoon Ushba and Roghane Hindi in the management of psoriasis: A randomized single-blind, placebo-controlled study.  J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2011 Jan-Mar; 2(1): 26–31. doi:  10.4103/0975-9476.78188. [Online]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3121250/?tool=pubmed [Accessed 25th June 2012].
  12. Altaf Hussain Shah, Amanullah Haji, Shameem Ahmad Rather, Tanzeel Ahmad, Abdul Nasir Ansari and G Soff .Clinical Study on the Management of Huzaz/Abria (Dandruff) with a pharmacopoeal Preparation of a Unani Medicine and its Cosmetic Evaluation. Anc Sci Life. 2009 Oct-Dec; 29(2): 24–27. PMCID: PMC3336309 [Online]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3336309/?tool=pubmed [Accessed 25th June 2012].
  13. Zar Nigar and Md. Anwar Alam. Effect of Taleeq (Leech Therapy) in Dawali (Varicose Veins) Anc Sci Life. 2011 Jan-Mar; 30(3): 84–91. PMCID: PMC333625. [Online]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3336254/?tool=pubmed [Accessed 25th June 2012].
  14. Seema Yousuf,Fahim Atif,Muzamil Ahmad,Tauheed Ishrat,Badruzzaman Khan,  and Fakhrul Islam. Neuroprotection Offered by Majun Khadar, a Traditional Unani Medicine, during Cerebral Ischemic Damage in Rats Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 754025. PMC3142668. Published online 2011 June 5. doi:  10.1093/ecam/nep224 [Online]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ [Accessed 25th June 2012].
  15. Abdul Wadud , S M Faisal Iqbal , Najeeb Jahan , G Sofi. Healing property of Jawarish Tabasheer, Unani poly herbal formulation in Induced Gastric Ulceration in Rat Models. Unani Res. | Jul–December 2011 | Vol 1 | Issue 2. [Online]. Available from: http://unanires.org/sites/default/files/03_UR_2_8.pdf [Accessed 25th June 2012].
  16. Mohd. Zulkifl e , Abdul Haseeb Ansari , Afzal Ahmad Khan. Evaluation of efficacy of barley water in pulmonary tuberculosis. Unani Res. | Jul–December 2011 | Vol 1 | Issue 2. [Online]. Available from: http://unanires.org/sites/default/files/03_UR_2_13.pdf [Accessed 25th June 2012].
  17. Altaf Hussain Shah , Amanullah Haji , M.A. Siddiqui , A.N. Ansari , G.Sofi. Unani Formulation Enhances Available Free Lung Space for Air Transaction in Chronic Bronchitis – A Clinical Trial. Unani Res. | Jul–December 2011 | Vol 1 | Issue 2. [Online]. Available from: http://unanires.org/sites/default/files/03_UR_2_9.pdf [Accessed 25th June 2012].
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  19. Unani Research. [Online]. Available from: www.unanires.org  [Accessed 2June 2011].
  20. National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resource.Available from: http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/43   [Accessed 11th June 2012].
  21. Hippocratic Journal of Unani Medicine [Online]. Available from: http://www.ccrum.net/iec/publications/scientific-journal/ [Accessed 2June 2011].
  22. International Journal of Unani Medicine [Online]. Available from:  http://ammaramu.zoomshare.com/files/IJUM.htm   [Accessed 2June 2011].
  23. Rheumatoid Arthritis Support. Available from: http://www.rheumatoidarthritissupport.com/[Accessed 12th April 2012]
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  25. Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Nauropathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH). Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine. Available from: http://indianmedicine.nic.in/ [Accessed 11th June 2012]
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  27. Mediescapes. Unani Medicine System in India. [Online]. Available from: http://www.mediescapes.co.in/unani-medicine-india-text.html [Accessed 25 September 2012].
  28. Bhikha R., Glyn P. Tibb As Part Of Integrative Medical Care.[Online]. Available from: http://www.tibb.co.za/articles/tibb_as_part.pdf, Arab Health Issue Magazine 02 February 2012
  29. Ibn Sina Institute of Tibb. Research Publications. Available from: http://www.tibb.co.za/research.html [Accessed 21 st May 2012]

 

 

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